1. The Story of JOSEPH: Genesis 37-50
A) Joseph the SON: The narrative of Joseph is one of the most beloved stories in all of Scripture. Most of us know it well. Joseph was one of twelve sons, but he was the favorite. This was mostly because he was one of only two sons that were born to Jacob's wife, Rachel. All the other sons were born to his other wife, Leah; and Rachel and Leah's maids. So Joseph was the favorite. And this was wrong. None of us should ever have any favorite children. Scripture tells us that this was actually the biggest reason Joseph's brothers were so jealous of him: “His brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers; and so they hated him. . .” (37:4). Jacob's favoritism nearly destroyed his family. And as we read through the narrative, we discover that Joseph wasn't only Jacob's favorite child, Jacob had actually made him into an idol. Jacob loved his son Joseph so much that when he is taken away from him, his whole world falls apart. What do we learn from all this? We learn that even mature believers like Jacob continue to need the sanctifying work of the Spirit in their lives. And so, to heal Jacob of his idolatry, God takes Joseph away for a season—but only for a season. In due time, the Lord restores Joseph once again to his father.1 . As we meditate on these things, the Lord would ask us: What are the things in our life that we've come to love a little too much? What are the ways we've become like Jacob? What are our idols? What are the things—even the really good, God-given things—in our life that we've begun to love in unhealthy ways?
B) Joseph the MAN: It wouldn't have been a hard thing for Joseph to believe that God loved him and had a wonderful plan for his life. After all, he was from the line of Abraham. And not only that, he traced his lineage through Abraham's son Isaac, and then again through Isaac's son, Jacob. Which meant that Joseph was part of the chosen family—an heir of God's promises. He didn't come from Ishmael or Esau; he was the chosen stock of the Lord. Further, he wasn't just any son of Jacob; he was the son of Jacob's wife Rachel—the special and beloved wife. What's more, Joseph knew that his father saw him as special and set apart from his brothers, since it was he alone who was given that special, varicolored robe. To add to it all, God even started giving Joseph dreams, where all his brothers were coming and bowing down to him! There's no question Joseph believed God loved him and had a wonderful plan for his life.2
But the plan that God had for Joseph's life must have been very, very different than what he imagined it would be. The plan that God had for Joseph's life would involve being exiled from his home-land, the land of Canaan; it would involve his own brothers selling him away to foreigners; it would involve being bought off the slave-block at the market; being wrongly accused of horrible things; and being banished to a dark prison cell for years on end. I wonder what Joseph was thinking during those years of slavery and prison. The Lord had spoken to him; He had given him these dreams, telling him what was in store for him. But Joseph's outward circumstances seemed to run totally contrary to what God had said He would do. It's like his life was spinning out of control. The Lord had made some pretty amazing promises, but as he looked at his life, he would have had to wonder: Is it really true? Is God going to do what He said?
And yet, even in the midst of everything he's going through, isn't it amazing how Joseph responds? What does he do? He continues to trust in the Lord; he continues to cling to what God had said; he continues to believe that the Lord would prove faithful. One reason we know this is from what we read in Genesis 40. This is the account of the two other men that are thrown into prison with Joseph. These men served Pharaoh as his cupbearer and baker; and Joseph is put in charge of looking after them. In verses 6-7, we read, “When Joseph came to them in the morning and observed them, behold, they were dejected. He asked Pharaoh's officials who were with him in confinement in his master's house, 'Why are your faces so sad today?'” In itself, this is actually quite an amazing thing. Why? Because if I were in Joseph's shoes, and I was suffering and in prison, and two other men in prison with me happened to look dejected in the morning, do you know how I would have probably responded? “Who cares? I'm pretty sad myself; this is a pretty miserable place.” Isn't it true that it's so hard for us to enter in to the sufferings of others when we're going through sufferings of our own? We tend to just focus on ourselves; feel sorry for ourselves. But that's not what Joseph does. Though he has plenty of suffering himself, he enters in to their sorrows.
Then look at the next verse. When Joseph asks them what's wrong, how do they respond? We read in verse 8, “Then they said to him, 'We have had a dream and there is no one to interpret it.'” Think about Joseph's own story. Think about his own dreams God had given him in his youth. Really, those dreams were the biggest reason he was sitting in that prison. It was his dreams that started this whole thing. And what's more, it seemed that God had completely failed to do what He had said that He would. So again, if I were Joseph, do you know how I would have responded? “I don't do dreams anymore, sorry.” If I'm honest, I probably would have responded with a good bit of cynicism and bitterness. “God, what about my dreams?” But again, that's not how Joseph reacts. He says, “Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell it to me, please.” Joseph is faithful in the moment God gives him with these two men over breakfast. We might think: “Yeah, but God ended up doing some pretty amazing things for Joseph.” But here's the thing: Joseph didn't know that. We know the end of his story—but he didn't. He didn't know what was going to happen in Genesis 41 while he was living in Genesis 40. He didn't have that luxury. Joseph had to trust in the Lord for what he couldn't see with his eyes (just like we do). How was he able to do this? Because Joseph knew that God's job was to do what He had promised; and his job was to trust in Him.
There was once a sports-radio talk-show host who was expressing frustration at the fans who had voiced disagreement over a decision the coaches had made. This is what he said: “You be fans, let [the coaches] be [coaches]. You're all for [coaches] making decisions until their decisions don't mesh with your own. . . Let the [coaches] be [coaches], when they do well, you scream really loud. That's your job. . .” Joseph knew what his job was. He knew that God's job was to do what He said; and his job was simply to trust in Him. It's the same thing us, friends. I don't know what you're going through right now. But here's what we all need to remember: God knows what He's doing. So, you let God do his job; and you do yours.
It must have seemed to Joseph like his life was completely spinning out of control. And it must have all seemed so meaningless: “Lord, what is going on? Lord, what in the world are You doing?” But the fact is, God did have a purpose behind all of it (a pretty amazing one). Think about it: If Joseph's brothers had never sold him into slavery, he would never have ended up in Egypt. Had Joseph never ended up in Egypt, he would never have gone to Potiphar's house. Had he never gone to Potiphar's house, he would never have ended up in prison. Had he never ended up in prison, he would never have been there to interpret those dreams. Had he never been there to interpret those dreams, he would never have stood before Pharaoh. Had he never stood before Pharaoh, there would have been no one to announce the warning about the famine. Had no one been there to warn them about the famine, Joseph's family and all of Egypt would have been swept away. So, it all seemed so meaningless. But it actually wasn't, was it?
At times we go through seasons of confusion in the Christian life. The way God is dealing with us doesn't make any sense; it doesn't seem to fit together with the promises He's made to us. Sometimes we don't understand what He's doing or why He's letting something happen. Sometimes it feels like our world is spinning out of control. What we need to remember in those times is that our job is to trust in the Lord.
C) Joseph the TYPE: Scripture sets forth Joseph as a Hebrew youth who proves faithful to the Lord. But Scripture also sets forth Joseph as a type of Christ. Think of it: He was the unique, beloved son of his father. Joseph was special, he was set apart; but his own kinsmen hated him for it, so much so that they sold him into the hands of Gentiles. He was falsely accused; and even though he was innocent, he suffered punishment. For Joseph, there was suffering before glory—there was a cross before a crown. But after his sufferings, he was highly exalted and given all authority by the King himself over all the land.
Indeed, behind it all, the Lord had a plan; He was weaving it all together for a greater purpose: It was through Joseph's sufferings and exaltation that the whole land would be preserved alive from death.3
Does it sound familiar? This is the story of the Savior. We see the life, death, and resurrection of Christ in the narrative of Joseph: Set apart by the Father, but betrayed by His own kinsmen. Falsely accused, but He uttered no threats in return. He suffered, though He was innocent. But after His sufferings, He was highly exalted, and given the name that is above every name; indeed, all authority has now been given to Him. And it was all for a single purpose: In order to preserve us, His people, alive from death.
Often, when we read through the story of Joseph, we tend to put ourselves in his shoes. This isn't a bad thing in itself. It's helps us make sense of our own story as we go through seasons of confusion in our life as Christians. But really, in a lot of ways, we're actually much more like Joseph's brothers in this story than we are like Joseph. Jesus is like Joseph. We're the ones who rejected Him; we're the ones who caused Him to suffer. We're the ones who sinned against Him; and so we're the ones who come into His presence, bowing at His feet, pleading for His mercy. And the most wonderful part is, when we do this, we receive His forgiveness, just like Joseph's brothers did. Our Savior speaks to us now in the very same way that Joseph spoke to his brothers, when he said to them: “Do not be afraid. . .you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good in order to bring about this present result, to preserve many people alive. So therefore, do not be afraid; I will provide for you and your little ones.” (Genesis 50:19-21).
2. The Calling of MOSES: Exodus 1-3
A) Moses the MAN: There's a lot that we could think about when it comes to Moses' life. But I think some of the most important lessons for us come from meditating on Moses' time of preparation in the wilderness. We're familiar, most of us, with the story: Moses was an Israelite child, but he grew up in Pharaoh's palace. And so, as we're told in the book of Acts: “Moses was educated in all the learning of the Egyptians. . .” (7:22); and, not only that, but living in the palace, Moses also would have had at his disposal all the luxuries and pleasures of the Egyptians. But even in this kind of environment, Moses never forgot who he was or where he came from. As Hebrews tells us: “Moses, when he had grown up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to endure ill-treatment with the people of God than to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin. . .” (11:24-25). Well, when he was about forty years old, he went out to visit his people; and he saw an Egyptian beating an Israelite; so he stood up for him and killed the Egyptian. That's when everything changed. Someone saw him do it, and word starts spreading. Pharaoh hears about it and tries to kill Moses. He has to flee; and he ends up fleeing to the land of Midian, where he meets a man who has seven daughters. Well, Moses ends up marrying one of them, and for the next forty years, his vocation is to shepherd the sheep of his father-in-law (Exodus 3:1).
Just like with Joseph, this must have been incredibly confusing for Moses. The Lord had put him in this amazing position of power and authority; he had been properly trained; he felt God's inward call to this great task before him. Now, the stage was set. This was the perfect moment. But God lets the “perfect moment” pass. Instead of delivering God's people, he's completely driven away; he loses everything and ends up living in some random place shepherding sheep for the next forty years. We can almost hear him crying out in the wilderness: “Lord, why?? This doesn't make any sense!” And not only would this have been confusing for Moses—it was incredibly humbling. He went from living in a palace to living in the wilderness; from leading an entire nation to leading a small flock of sheep (and remember, the sheep weren't even his—they belonged to his father-in-law). Years later, David would go from being a shepherd to reigning as king. But for Moses, it's like he's going backwards. He left behind a life of significance and he entered into a life of obscurity; he went from being known and respected to being a nobody. And it's also noteworthy that in Genesis 46:34, we're told that, “every shepherd is loathsome to the Egyptians.” In other words: Moses is now doing the very thing that all his Egyptian colleagues used to despise; Moses is now engaged in the one line of work that even the common people looked down upon. We might think of Moses as going from being in Congress to working at McDonalds. This was truly a humbling thing.
There are searching questions for all of us here: Most of us dream of serving Jesus in the context of a large and fruitful ministry. That's not bad, necessarily, but here's the question: Are you willing to die to your dreams of Christian ministry? It would feel great to be the pastor of a large church where everything is flourishing; or a successful church-planter where you're baptizing new believers almost every week. But what if that's not what the Lord wants? Could you die to a life of “greatness for Jesus”? Is Christ plus nothing really, truly enough for you? Are you willing to serve the Savior in the midst of the wilderness?
The story of Moses is similar to the story of Joseph in that both men were wronged. Joseph was wronged by his brothers. But it seems that Moses was wronged too. When he went out among the people, one of them accused him, saying: “Who made you a prince or a judge over us? Are you intending to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” (2:14). It was because of this comment that Moses had to flee. And when Acts 7:25 summarizes for us what happened back in Egypt, it tells us that Moses “supposed that his brethren understood that God was granting them deliverance through him, but they did not understand.” So, it seems he was wronged. But Moses also had plenty of wrong of his own. It was wrong of him to kill the Egyptian. And so, as Moses spent those forty long years in the wilderness, I wonder how often he turned these events over in his mind. Maybe he struggled with anger against those who made known what he had done. Maybe he was tempted to think these people had messed up God's plan and ruined his life. Or, on the other hand, maybe Moses was angry at himself for taking vengeance on that Egyptian. Maybe he thought he was the one who had messed everything up and ruined God's plan. Maybe he started thinking that this time in the wilderness was God punishing him for his past sins. Or maybe, at the least, he started thinking that though God had forgiven him, he had basically lost out on his chance to be used by God in mighty ways: Had God forgiven his sin? Sure. But now the glory days were dead and gone.
Friends, can you relate to any of this? Moses' story is here to encourage us! Others had wronged Moses, but they could never mess up God's plan. Nothing could ruin God's plan. Actually, every single thing that happened to Moses was part of God's plan from the beginning. None of this happened by accident. Nor was God punishing Moses for his sin. Sometimes when we go through seasons of wilderness, this is what we start thinking. But God was not punishing Moses for past sin—He was actually preparing him for future work. Moses didn't end up in the wilderness because he had somehow missed God's plan; his time in the wilderness was actually just the next stage of God's plan. And it was an important stage: God had already gifted Moses; and He had trained and equipped him; but now, here in the wilderness, the Lord was going to purify him; He was going to refine him; He was going to empty him and humble him. See, it was because the Lord was going to use Moses in extraordinary ways, that He had to first humble him in extraordinary ways. Moses had to be broken; this is why God brought him to the desert. But the desert was never the final destination. God wasn't taking him to the wilderness, but through it. The final goal was to bring him out humbled, refined, fit for use. I don't know what lies Moses was tempted to believe. But despite what he may have thought, the glory days weren't over—they were still yet to come.
B) Moses the TYPE: Just like with Joseph, Moses is set forth as a believing man we can deeply relate to—but he's also set forth as a type, or picture, of Christ.4 Just like the Savior, Moses was preserved from slaughter at the time of his birth. He was born into a poor family, yet he was the heir of a king; he was born the child of a slave, yet he was free from the slavery of his brothers. But though he came from a palace, he was willing to leave it all in order to come and deliver his people from their bondage. And yet, when he came to his brothers, he was scorned and rejected by them. Even so, he would yet lead God's people to freedom from their captivity. What's more, Moses' ministry was marked by miraculous signs and wonders in order to prove the truth of his message. And he acted as a mediator between God and the people. He also interceded for them when they committed sin. At one point after the people had sinned, Moses even asks God to condemn him instead of them—he offers up his own life in exchange for theirs, when he says: “But now. . .forgive their sin—and if not, please blot me out from Your book which You have written!” (Exodus 32:32). In light of all this, it's no wonder that when Moses prophesied about the coming Savior, he described him in this way: “The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him. . .” (Deuteronomy 18:15ff).5
3. The Redemption of ISRAEL: Exodus 1-14; 20; Leviticus 1-6
And not only is Moses a type of Christ—but the whole deliverance with which God saves His people from their slavery in Egypt sets forth glorious truths about the redemption we have in and through the Savior:
A) Our NEED for Redemption: God's people were enslaved in Egypt. They had a master, which meant they couldn't just leave. Scripture says it's the same for us before we come to Christ: We are slaves to our sin. Jesus said: “Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who commits sin is the slave of sin.” (John 8:34).
B) The POWER of Redemption: When Pharaoh wouldn't let the people go, the Lord began to send the plagues, and Scripture describes these plagues as the very power of God. The Lord told Pharaoh: “for this reason I have allowed you to remain, in order to show you My power and in order to proclaim My name through all the earth.” (Exodus 9:16). It was only in and through the power of God that Pharaoh was ultimately compelled to let the people go. In the same way, Paul refers to the message of the gospel as the very power of God that releases us from the dominion of sin. He declares: “For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes. . .” (Romans 1:16).
C) The MOTIVE of Redemption: Why did God save Israel? Was it because they were so wonderful; because they were such an obedient and submissive people? No. In fact, right before God told Moses to stretch out his staff over the Red Sea in order to divide it—and the Egyptians were pursuing them—what was Israel doing? They were saying this to Moses: “Is it because there were no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the wilderness? . . .Is this not the word that we spoke to you in Egypt, saying, 'Leave us alone that we may serve the Egyptians'?” (Exodus 14:10-12). Israel was a stubborn people. Why did God save them? Psalm 106:8 says: “Nevertheless He saved them for the sake of His name. . .” It's the same with us. God saved us in Christ for “the praise of the glory of His grace” (Ephesians 1:6). Just like with Israel, God didn't save us because we were beautiful—but in order to make us beautiful.
D) The BASIS of Redemption: God's judgment was coming down upon Egypt. And, in order for Israel to escape that judgment, a lamb had to be slain. If there was no blood on their door-posts, the Israelites would have experienced the same judgement that came upon the Egyptians. God made it clear that He would only “pass over” their houses if He saw the blood on the door. This blood not only saved Israel from God's judgment—but it was in and through the blood of the passover lamb that God set them free from their slavery in Egypt. It's the same with us: It's only in and through Christ, our Passover lamb, that we are both saved from the wrath of God (justification) and set free from our slavery to sin (regeneration).
E) The PURPOSE of Redemption: Exodus also helps us understand that there was a particular purpose for which God saved His people Israel. The Lord told Moses to announce this message to Pharaoh: “Let My people go, that they may serve Me.” (Exodus 8:1; 4:23; 7:16; 8:20; 9:1,13; 10:3). This was the purpose for which God saved Israel—He set them free that they might serve Him. It's the same for us in Christ. Paul tells us in Romans 7:6 that the reason God set us free from the condemning power of the Law was “so that we [might] serve [Him] in newness of the Spirit. . .” We've been redeemed—but not to live however we please. We've been set free, so that, “being rescued from the hand of our enemies, [we] might serve Him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before Him all our days.” (Luke 1:74-75).
F) God's PRECEPTS for the Redeemed: What did it look like to serve the Lord? How did God want Israel to serve Him? What was His will for them? What were the commands He wanted them to obey? These are the questions the Lord answered when He gave Israel the Ten Commandments. This was the expression of His will for them. This was the way that the Lord wanted His people, Israel, to serve Him. He redeemed them; and then after He had redeemed them, He gave them His Law in order to show them how He wanted them to live as His people. And it's the same for us. God's Law, as revealed in the Ten Commandments, is a summary of how God wants His redeemed people to live (Matthew 5:17).
G) God's PROVISION for the Redeemed: The Passover lamb had been sacrificed. And God's people had been redeemed. But what they quickly realized as they entered into the wilderness was that they still continued to struggle with sin. God had redeemed them, and had given them His Law. But every day they found themselves breaking the commands God had given them. So, what now? The Lord made provision for their sins through the Levitical sacrifices. Now, the purpose of these sacrifices wasn't for unbelievers to have their sins forgiven. Rather, these were sacrifices offered by God's people to receive forgiveness for the sins they continued to commit every day. So actually, these sacrifices weren't about obtaining favor with God—but maintaining favor with God. The blood of a lamb had saved them at the beginning, at the Passover; but the blood of a lamb was also what kept them saved as they continued to struggle with sin every day. In the same way: Jesus' blood doesn't just save us—it's what keeps us saved. The cross isn't just what obtains favor with God—it's what maintains our favor with God. Christ's blood doesn't just make us right with God—it's what continues to keep us right with God (Hebrews 10:14).
One writer summarized all the things we've been speaking of in this way: “The central doctrine of the book of Exodus is redemption, but this is not formally expounded, rather is it strikingly illustrated. . .He instructed them, mainly, through His providential dealings and by means of types and symbols. . .The deliverance of Israel from Egypt furnishes a remarkably full and accurate typification of our redemption by Christ. . .Israel in Egypt illustrates the place we were in before Divine grace saved us. . .Pharaoh, who knew not the Lord, who defied Him, who was the inveterate enemy of God’s people, but who at the end was overthrown by God, shadows forth the great adversary, the Devil. The cruel bondage of the enslaved Hebrews pictures the tyrannical dominion of sin over its captives. The groaning of the Israelites under their burdens speaks of the painful exercises of conscience and heart when convicted of our lost condition. The deliverer raised up by God in the person of Moses, points to the greater Deliverer, even our Lord Jesus Christ. The Passover night tells of the security of the believer beneath the sheltering blood of God’s Lamb. The Exodus from Egypt announces our deliverance from the yoke of bondage and our judicial separation from the world. The crossing of the Red Sea depicts our union with Christ in His death and resurrection. The journey through the wilderness—its trials and testings, with God’s provision to meet every need—represent the experiences of our pilgrim course. The giving of the law to Israel teaches us the obedient submission which we owe to our new Master. [And] The tabernacle with its beautiful fittings and furnishings, shows us the varied excellencies and glories of Christ. . .”6
1 And what a beautiful passage this is, in Genesis 45:25ff. Here we see the Lord reviving the heart of Jacob in his old age.
2 The insights of these sections are gratefully gleaned from Rev. Sujoy Roy, in his sermon expositions on Genesis (in Bangla).
3 Henry Law puts it this way in The Gospel in Genesis: “The Scripture before us is precious, because every view of Joseph exhibits Jesus! Who is the envied, and hated, and rejected of his brethren? Who is the sold for pieces of silver; the cast out into Egypt; the numbered with the transgressors; the apparent culprit between two offenders, of whom one is exalted, the other perishes? Who is raised from the prison to the right hand of majesty? In all these outlines, is not Jesus seen? He it is on whose shoulder the government is laid. He it is, who rescues His kindred from perishing. He it is, whose heart yearned over them, when they knew Him not. He it is, to whom the perishing must flee. He it is, who has the key of all supplies. The name is Joseph. The true image is Jesus.” (The Storehouses Opened). Focusing on the two men with Joseph in prison and their two distinct outcomes, Law also says this: “But in the Egyptian dungeon we see more than a resemblance of the blameless Jesus bearing blame. Transactions are transacted there, which help to unclasp the records of the empire of grace. There are two offenders of no common note by Joseph's side. Human judgment looks in vain for difference between them. They are similar in outward calling—involved in like displeasure and degradation—expecting like ignominious end. But soon they are parted. One mounts the path of favor, and is crowned with honors—the other is left in bonds to die. Such is the relation. . .Behold the fulfillment. He is uplifted between two malefactors. . .We take our station at Calvary. The accursed trees are upraised. The three are transfixed thereon. Jesus hangs in the midst. (Numbered with the Transgressors). And Jonathan Edwards says: “This salvation of the house of Israel, by the hand of Joseph, was upon some accounts very much a resemblance of the salvation of Christ. The children of Israel were saved by Joseph their kinsman and brother, from perishing by famine; as he that saves the souls of the spiritual Israel from spiritual famine is their near kinsman, and one that is not ashamed to call them brethren. Joseph was a brother they had hated, sold, and as it were killed; for they had designed to kill him. So Christ is one that we naturally hate, and by our wicked lives, have sold for the vain things of the world, and by our sins have slain. Joseph was first in a state of humiliation; he was a servant, as Christ appeared in the form of a servant; and then was cast into a dungeon, as Christ descended into the grave. When he rose out of the dungeon, he was in a state of great exaltation, at the king's right hand as his deputy, to reign over all his kingdom, to provide food, to preserve life; and being in this state of exaltation, he dispenses food to his brethren, and so gives them life. So Christ was exalted at God's right hand to be a Prince and Savior to his brethren, received gifts for men, even for the rebellious, them that had hated and sold him.” (The History of Redemption, Works, V1, p545. For more see also Edwards' Types of the Messiah, in his Works, pp651-53).
4 As Jonathan Edwards notes: “The remarkable agreement between many things in the history of Moses, and the prophecies of the Messiah, argue the former to be a type of the latter.” (Types of the Messiah, Works, p653). Arthur Pink in his book, Gleanings from Exodus, lists no less than 75 ways in which Moses was a type of Christ. We will look at some specifics below.
5 Jonathan Edwards, referencing this prophecy in Deuteronomy 18, writes: “This is a plainer prophecy of Christ than any before. All the preceding prophecies were in figurative, mystical language. The first prophecy was so, that the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head. The promises made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that in their seed all the families of the earth should be blessed, were also mystical. . .The prophecy of Jacob in blessing Judah (Genesis 49:8) is in mystical language; and so is that of Balaam, which speaks of Christ under the figurative expression of a star. But this is a plain prophecy, without being veiled at all in any mystical language.” (A History of the Word of Redemption, Works, p549).
6 A.W. Pink, from his commentary, Gleanings in Exodus, p9.